FOOD RESOURCES 2014. Issue N 4. Technical sciences. Article 06

06. Effect of lactation phase and alimentary diet on the fat acid content of human milk
 
Ya. Zhukova
Pages: 26-31
 
Abstract
Analysis of the literature on biochemical composition of mature breast milk from different countries showed significant differences. It is shown that differences in the composition of fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, spectrum depends on the diet of women, which in turn is due to geographic and economic characteristics. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of the fatty acid composition of late human milk depending on the phase of lactation, which will serve as a basis for the development of formula for infant nutrition. This research studied milk obtained from 18 mothers during 9th to 200th day of lactation and lasted for a year. The diet of women was traditional for the population of middle-class cities of Ukraine. It was revealed that the milk of women from Ukraine characterized with the higher content of oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2 n6) and lower content of alpha-linolenic (C18:3n3) acid compared to the milk of women coming from other countries. This can be explained with such diet peculiarities, as increased consumption of sunflower and corn oils and dairy products, but the relatively poor fish and meat usage. During lactation there are changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of human milk, in particular its lipid phase. Highest fat content was observed in evening milk for women from industrialized countries with European diet and in the early morning milk for women from developing countries. The level of C10:0, C14:0 fatty acids increased during the first 2-3 months of lactation and is considered to be a variable index, while levels of C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:2 C20:4 acids in mature milk are relatively constant. When developing artificial milk formula for babies it is necessary to take into account both child development stage and regional eating habits. Considering these features will prevent a number of diseases caused by unbalanced components of the mixture.
 
Key words: phase of lactation, breast milk fatty acid composition
 
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