FOOD RESOURCES 2018. Issue N 10. Article 11

11. Complex indicator of quality of sugars and sugar substitutes and their use in the production of confectionery products 
A. Dorohovych, V. Dorohovych, L. Mazur, O. Pisarets
Pages: 88-100
The paper presents the results of calculation basing on fundamental principles of theoretical qualimetry, of the complex index of quality of sugars and sugar substitutes. When evaluating sugars according to the complex indicator, as the differential indicators sweetness, glycemic index, solubility, melting point, caloric content were selected these, having the greatest influence on the sensorial, technological and physiological parameters of sugar quality. When calculating the complex index of sugar substitutes, it was suggested to introduce three indicators: the heat dissolution, water activity and the degree of addition to the differential indicators that were used when evaluating the quality of sugars. According to the selected indicators, their values having transformed into a 10-point scale, profilograms were constructed. Formulas for calculating the complex quality index were developed taking into account the validating factors of each indicator determined by the Delphi method. The calculation of the complex index of sugars quality showed a significant advantage of tagatose and the expediency of its use to manufacture confectionery products. The calculation of the complex index of quality of sugar substitutes showed that the highest score had erythritol, which determined the expediency of its use in the manufacture of confectionery products with dietary function. The calculation showed the following values of the complex index of sugars’ quality –  sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose, tagatose, trehalose: 0.53, 0.46, 0.72, 0.44, 0.26, 0.81, 0.44, 0.47 respectively, and sugar substitutes – sorbitol, xylitol, isomaltotol, maltitol, erythritol, lactitol: 0.34, 0.42, 0.37, 0.47, 0.86, 0. 37 respectively. The article describes the sorption-desorption properties of various groups of confectionery products using sugars and sugar substitutes.
Key words: theoretical qualimetry, complex index, Delphi method, differential indicators, sugar, sugar substitutes
1. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Expert Consultation, Rome, 140 (1998).
2. Mcnaught, D. 1996. Mcnaught, D. Nomenclature of carbohydrates. Pure & Appl. Chem. 68 (10): 1919-2008.
3. Codex standard for formula foods for use in weight control diets CODEX STAN 181-1991,  6.
4. Polumbryk, M. 2011. Vuglevody v harchovyh productah i zdorov’ya lyudyny – Carbohydrates in food products and human health, Academiperiodica, Kyiv, 487 (in Ukrainian).
5. Levin, G. 1995. Sugar substitutes: their energy values, bulk characteristics and potential health benefit. Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 62: 1161-1168.
6. Kier, L. 1972. A molecular theory of sweet taste. J. Pharm. Sci., 61: 1394-1397.
7. Jenkins, D., T. Wolever and R. Taylor. 1981. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am.J.Clin. Nutr., 34: 362-366.
8. Francis, F. 1999. Wiley encyclopedia of food science and technology. 2th edition. J. Wiley&Sons, 2816. 
9. Belitz, H.-D., W. Grosch and P. Schieberle. 2009. Food Chemistry. 4th revised and expanded edition, Springer-Verlag, 1070.
10. Bathesda, M., 1994. The Evaluation of the Energy of Certain Sugar Alcohols Used as Food Ingredients. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 84.
11. Korpachev, V. 2004. Sahara i saharozameniteli – Sugars and sweetener. Кniga plus – Кnyga plus, 320 (in Russian).
12. Zhuk, V. 1999. Sensornuy analiz – Sensory analysis. Litopys, 231 (in Ukrainian).
13. Brouns, F., I. Bjorck and K. Frayn. 2005. Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr. Res. Rev., 18: 145 – 171.
14. Skoog, D., D. West and F. Holler. 1996. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 7th. ed. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, 293.
15. Azgaldov, G., A. Glichev and E. Rayhman. 1968. Kvalimetriya – nauka ob izmerenii kachestva produkcii – Qualimetry is a science about measuring the product’s quality. Standards and quality: 34-35 (in Russian).
16. Levin , G. 2002. Tagatose the New GRAS Sweetener and Health Product. Med. Food, 65: 243-249.
17. Lu ,Y., G. Levin and T. Donner. 2008. Tagatose, a new antidiabetic and obesity control drug. Diab. Obes. Metab., 10: 109-134.
18. O’Brien-Nabors, L. 2001. Alternative Sweeteners. Third edition. CRC Press, N. Y., 572.
19. Mitchell, H. 2006. Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 432.
20. Dorokhovych, A., O. Bozhok and L. Mazur. 2016. Tagatoza i mal’titol – innovacijna cyrovuna pry vyrobnyctvi zhuval’noi carameli – The tagatose and maltitol are innovation raw materials for production of masticatory caramel. Harchova nauka i tehnologija – Food Science and Technology, 10 (1): 43-48 (in Ukrainian).
21. Dorohovych V., A. Abramova. 2013. Innovacionnaya technologiya biskvitnych polufabrikatov s ispol’zovaniem sacharozamenitelya novogo pocoleniya eritritola – Innovation technologies of semi-finished cake products with the use of erythritol – a sweetener of the new generation. ATU: 229-231 (in Russian).